Third Culture Kids: our global future?
29 May

Third Culture Kids: our global future?

Who are Third Culture Kids?

In the first exploration into the ‘imagined community’ of Expatria we established some of its key statistical contours, a rudimental mapping of a made-up nation. Its 232 million inhabitants make it the world’s fifth most populous ‘nation’, a population that has quadrupled in the last 25 years. Data provided by the UN and CIA Factbook projected Expatria as a nation befitting the developed world – an average age corresponding to Poland and South Korea and a GDP, although difficult to ascertain using remittance and tax avoidance figures, suiting other better fairing economies.

However, these promising figures are brought together by glaring disparities. Polarisations personified by the divide between the South Asian migrant workers who build the pleasure palaces of Dubai and the multinational CEOs that occupy them.

Third Culture Kids are children who have spent a significant part of their formative years living outside of their parents’ country of origin.

This series aims to investigate all facets of life in Expatria, starting with its future – its children. Young migrants number 34.8 million globally, being proportionally greater in the developing world, which hosts 62% of migrants under 20.

UN data produced in 2010 announced that there are over 13 million global migrants between the ages of 0 and 9, representing a significant proportion of immigrant populations in Africa and Central and South America. Child migration is as popular amongst developing nations as it is between developing and developed nations. Research stemming from the 1950s has conveyed expatriate children, referred to as Third Culture Kids (TCKs), as a unique group of growing global significance. In the Telegraph, Ruth van Reken acknowledged the exponential growth of TCKs and the ‘priceless gifts’ they have to offer.

Third Culture Kids: a border-straddling upbringing

The third culture is inspired by parental cultures and host nation cultures.

Third Culture Kids, the adopted sons and daughters of Expatria, are children who have spent a significant part of their formative years living outside of their parents’ country of origin. Sociologist Ruth Hill Useem’s work, based on her personal experiences of raising a family in India, built the platform for understanding expatriate children as being of a distinct third culture. The third culture is inspired by parental cultures and host nation cultures; the third, a synthesis created in the Petri dish of expatriate life.

Understanding of this border-straddling upbringing, was furthered by Ann Baker Cottrell who defined ‘global nomads’ as children ‘raised in third cultures, cultures which are created and shared by individuals in the process of relating different societies.’

Overseas job opportunities have increased and so have the number of globally-located children, it is estimated that there are as many bilingual children in the world as there are monolingual. In a survey conducted amongst American Adult Third Culture Kids (ATCKs), Expatria’s children were proven highly educated, four times more likely to achieve a Bachelor’s degree than non-expatriates, and over a third go on to Master’s level study.

Third Culture Kids have been a historical mainstay since the dawn of imperialism. The Child Migrant Trust charts the beginning of this movement to 1618 as London-born children were sent to Richmond, Virginia. Writers JG Ballard and Doris Lessing are examples of children of empire and their third culture experiences permeate through their work.

After World War Two and America’s consolidation as a world power, professional migration, globalised companies, international organisations and military outposts expanded the number of school age Americans living overseas, numbering 300,000 in research conducted in 1976. The embodiment of this phenomena is Barack Obama, born in Hawaii and raised in Indonesia and Chicago, now the 44th President of the United States of America.

Kikokushijo

“Aren’t those who actually experienced living overseas better candidates for globalisation than those who have never left Japan?”Yasuo Ichimura

Third Culture Kids of Japanese origin, known as Kikokushijo, have posed both a domestic difficulty and a potential solution to a nation, like all, needing individuals with a three-dimensional worldview. In 2011, the Kikokushijo grew to 780,000 and have been a cause of periodic domestic issues due to their difficulties in re-assimilation. In light of the current global climate, The Japan Times has called for this oft-marginalised group of bicultural and bilingual returnees to assist Japan, as its industries grapple with globalisation. Yasuo Ichimura, a representative of the Japan Foreign Trade Commission, questioned – “aren’t those who actually experienced living overseas better candidates for globalisation than those who have never left Japan?”

The formative make-up of Expatria’s youth appears an identikit for the future – an enriching cross-cultural experience generating an expanded worldview, children that embody the present day. In the globalised twenty-first century TCKs find themselves ‘increasingly relevant in the contemporary interconnected world’, according to Baker Cottrell.

The potential of the bilingual and bicultural is vast, however, the second part of this segment aims to make clear the difficulties and crises that befall children of global movement, an attempt to answer whether the world-faring are destined for world-weariness.

Sources: BBC, The Guardian, Huffington Post, The Independent, International Business Times,
Japan Times, New York Times, The Telegraph, Vice News.
Credit to William Purbrick, Digital and Research Assistant at The Expat Survey.

By The Expat Survey

The Expat Survey engages expats of all nationalities in online, postal, telephone and ‘face-to-face’ focus group research of those living outside their country of origin

How many expats are there?
11 Apr

How many expats are there?

Expatria, the biggest country you have never heard of!
Here we take ‘expat’ to mean anyone who lives outside of their nation of origin for at least six months of any twelve month period.

Verb (used with object), expatriated, expatriating
1) to banish (a person) from his and her native country 2) to withdraw (oneself) from residence in one’s native country 3) to withdraw (oneself) from allegiance to one’s native country
There are 232 million people living outside of their nation of origin but what do we actually know about them? Immigrant or expat, tax exile or asylum seeker, estimations vary wildly and the knowledge of a population of almost a quarter of a billion has proven shallow. The Expat Survey conducts independent research that aims to paint a more accurate and textured picture of a constantly changing landscape. To emphasise this dearth in intel, if we took the world’s expatriates and put them in a country, how would that country look and feel?

Welcome to Expatria
An expatriate (sometimes shortened to expat): is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of the person’s upbringing. The word comes from the Latin terms ‘ex’ (out of) and ‘patria’ (country, fatherland).‘Expatria’ – our imaginary nation of expatriates/immigrants – would have a population of 232 million, rising from 154 million in 1990 and 175 million in 2000, according to UN statistics. This ranks Expatria as the fifth most populous nation on the planet, over three and a half times the number of people in the United Kingdom and sandwiched between Indonesia and Brazil – half the population size of the European Union. Expatria’s population growth rate of over a third since 1990 is matched by Brazil and Indonesia, two of the fastest growing economies worldwide.
The average age of the citizens of Expatria would be 38, being at their average youngest in Africa and oldest in Oceania. UN statistics estimate that 48% of the population would be women and 26 million of the residents aged 65+ years of age and proportionally greater represented than they are in the world population, 11% of the migrant population yet just 8% of the world’s population. Interestingly, 20-34 year olds represent 64 million people and also less females, which can be attributed to the transit of male migrant workers, especially those based in Asia.

A diverse population
The population of Expatria must be considered one of the most diverse on the planet. The largest proportion of people coming from South Asia, accounting for 36 million of the population, with about 19 million migrants living in Europe, some 16 million in Northern America and about 3 million in Oceania. The second and third largest groups coming from Central America and the Caribbean, 17.4 million Central Americans are living in the US.

Measuring the wealth of Expatria is difficult; however remittance figures estimated by the World Bank give some indicator of the economic power of expatriates worldwide. The World Bank estimates $435 billion will be sent in remittance in 2014, outweighing ODA (official development assistance) by a factor of three. Although being a crude comparison, this figure would project Expatria as a top 40 world economy in 2014 if taken as its GDP. This is without considering the estimated wealth of tax exiles to be found in the havens of Switzerland, Luxembourg and the like. A study conducted by economist James Henry suggests at least £13 trillion ($20tn) squirreled away worldwide, which would catapult its ranking to the top of the table.

The citizens of Expatria are workers in a diverse range of fields that have significant economic power. European immigrants (European Economic Area) in the UK have contributed £20bn a year from 2001 to 2011 according to a study conducted by University College, London. Not only are expats economic contributors but work in various sectors. In the case of the UK, The Telegraph states that migrants from within the EU primarily fulfilling manual work, in factories and farming, whilst Non-EU immigrants are prominent in professional roles in health and science.

The population of Expatria equates to 3.2% of the world’s population but what do we really know about them?

The understanding of Expatria is in black-and-white with broad strokes, while the UN suggest a worldwide population of extra-nationals is 232 million, independent research conducted by Finaccord suggests a figure 56 million worldwide in 2014. At least there are estimates for the size of this universe, beyond quantitative figures, little is known of the quality and composition of the lives of expatriates.

This article has highlighted that there is a massive population, globally-based, that people know very little about, and what is by no means concrete. In 2013, The Guardian estimated that ethnic minorities, 14% of the population of the United Kingdom, is not effectively marketed to by businesses, only emphasising the massive Expatria-shaped hole in market intelligence.

The findings of the Expat Survey 2013 illuminated that expatriates spend more time on sites from their country of origin rather than sites of their country of residence; 70% still choosing to shop online from native sites. Statistics like these emphasise the inability of business to understand the spending habits of immigrant communities.

The deficiency of information highlights the need for independent research, the need for the Expat Survey. The English historian J. H. Plumb once stated, ‘statistics may give shadow and depth to the picture [yet] they cannot paint it.’ In regards to expatriate understanding, it is The Expat Survey that acts as the brush to paint the market’s landscape, to get the wants of a potential quarter billion understood by relevant and influential business.

Sources: CIA Factbook, UN, The Guardian, The Telegraph, UCL, The Expat Survey 2013, Finaccord.
Credit to William Purbrick – digital and research assistant for The Expat Survey.

By The Expat Survey

The Expat Survey engages expats of all nationalities in online, postal, telephone and ‘face-to-face’ focus group research of those living outside their country of origin

Have you filled in The Expat Survey yet? Visit www.theexpatsurvey.com to have your say and be in with a chance of winning £2000!

The Expat Survey 2015 is live!
27 Mar

The Expat Survey 2015 is live!

Get involved today for your chance to win £2000 cash prize, along with Amazon and Lebara vouchers.
3.2% of the world’s population can be considered expatriates, but how much do we really know about this quarter billion? Aiwding in our research, by completing our 3-part research programme, can get this significant population better understood.
There are 232 million people living outside of their nation of origin but what do we actually know about them? Immigrant or expat, tax exile or asylum seeker, estimations vary wildly and the knowledge of a population of almost a quarter of a billion has proven shallow. The Expat Survey conducts in-depth research that aims to paint a more accurate and textured picture of a constantly changing landscape and we are calling for your participation!
There is no other independent study that attempts to understand the lifestyles of those who live overseas like The Expat Survey. Emma Wood, project director, explains its ethos: ‘We are dedicated to the interconnectedness of business, client and customer; expat voices are unique but not always the loudest, our research can improve this conversation.’
The Expat Survey is a comprehensive programme that covers every facet of expat life – health to politics, online spending habits to the media engagement which enables expats to stay in contact with ‘home’; and the news content they track around the world. ‘Here, we are concerned with the quality of expatriate life, not just quantifying its facts and figures. The data we collect is never passed on to third parties or government agencies. We are sponsored by a cross-section of business dedicated to expats, from Lebara to International Family Law Group; that don’t have direct access to The Expat Survey’s raw intelligence, but are able to significantly enhance their understanding of the expatriate customers that they serve by consulting with our insights team’ says Wood.
In completing The Expat Survey you have the chance of winning a £2000 cash prize! You also have the chance of improving the businesses that are providing services to you, shaping the expatriate experience by speaking collectively! ‘We have received more than 14,000 responses so far, but need this number to climb by getting as many expatriates as possible to engage in this year’s project. We welcome any nationality from any country and your participation can make a valuable contribution to others in real terms, so we urge you to get involved’.

15 Feb

Expatria, the biggest country you have never heard of!

Expatria, the biggest country you have never heard of! – ‘Expatria’ – our imaginary nation of expatriates/immigrants – would have a population of 232 million, rising from 154 million in 1990 and 175 million in 2000, according to UN statistics. The population of Expatria equates to 3.2% of the world’s population but what do we really know about them? The deficiency of information highlights the need for independent research, the need for the Expat Survey. The expat survey is the world’s largest independent annual research study of those living outside their country of origin EXPAT SURVEY (15-2-15)